Modernism research and notes for essay.
WHAT IS MODERNISM? CHOOSE 3 EXAMPLES FOUND IN A MUSEUM, GALLERY OR BOOK. DISCUSS WHY IT IS MODERN RATHER THAN A PRODUCT OF ITS TIME.
2 What did m develop from - when
3 What was the catalyst that changed enlightenment to modernism
4 What were the unique qualities of m
5 Who were the innovators
6 What was it that they were doing differently
7 What allowed them to work differently.( Social changes, technical developments)
8 a b c What piece chosen
9 a b c Artist and describe it
10 abc Why I chose it
11 abc Where it fits into time scale
12 abc What are the qualities that make it m and what were the innovations or social change that made this particular piece possible
1 Modernism was an explosion of new technology, technique and creativity in art, that both reflected and influenced the world in which it was create. It expressed the mood of the nation….
In the mid nineteenth century Britain was experiencing the start of its’ second industrial revolution. Modernism was the style that spanned the following century, until the end of the sixties, when we entered the space age, after the Americans landed the first man on the moon. The world moved onto contemporary art. The tremendous changes that occurred during this time, sees Britain turn into a modern industrial nation, this obviously spilt over into all parts of society including the arts.
1 M. lasted for around (100 years?) & while its values are described in thousands of publications in roughly the same way, there seems to be as many interpretations of them as there are artists working within them. There are however, distinct groups that co-exist within modernism that develop as they progress through time; from the early impressionists and pre- raphaelites through the Art Nouveau & Art Deco eras to abstract expressionism and pop art. It is a huge umbrella that covers all aspect of art and design over a vaguely defined period of time. It seems to have been an attitude that was stimulated by the industrial developments of the late 19th c. In an essay by Anthony.S.Denzer titled Masters of Modernism the author sums up its objectives as being “ an interest in exploring new materials, a rejection of historical precedents, and a simplification of forms by a reduction of ornament.”
Although this statement is concise the more I read the more confusing it becomes. There seems to be so many opinions on what modernism is, when it started and who the first artist was to work in the new modern style. As we know Virginia Wolf tells us very precisely that “human character changed” in 1910. F.Novotny tells us in the cover notes of his book Cezanne, that “the father of modern art” was in fact Cezanne, where as others say that Edouard Manet was the first modern painter in the 1860’s. Paul Greenhalgh from the V&A considers Art Nouveau as the first modern design style but other people describe it as only the root of modernism.
2 M- a philosophy- questions the old perception of art as ‘open minded reason as in the enlightenment period. Enlightenment paved the way for modernist ideas to grow. Enlightenment changed Brit and it influenced the devel. of m. Artists freed from former social and technical constraints can experiment with technique and subject matter which in return provokes change. En. looked back to the perceived perfection of ancient art whereas the modernists rejected the past and looked to the future. They didn’t want to be just another version of the past, these new artists born out of the modern age wanted to be progressive and completely different.
3 Artistic style and fashion are constantly changing, a progression. With modernism, while it grew out of the enlightenment period the onset of industrialisation and the subsequent social and technological revolution was a catalyst for greater change. Art was no longer simply a development of what had gone before.
The attitude of the artist designer changed from wanting to change society to wanting to enhance it.
-There are many movements that come under the heading of modernism, here is a short outline of a few of the main ones.
(-Some confusion over what was the first modernist art work. Start with impressionism at the moment.)
All the early movements and artists had a similar agenda, rejecting the past, as inspiration for their work. Choosing more naturalistic and current observations and looking at different ways of depicting their subjects. They were also experimenting with the use of colour with new scientific discoveries about light and colour.
The development of photography freed artist from having to be totally realistic
-IMPRESSIONISM. An early modernist movement that rejected the formal style of the preceding romantic movement. Realistic subject matter and naturalistic use of light. Fast loose brush strokes.
-CUBISM. From about 1907 the cubist artists, most notably Pablo Picasso, were using multiple perspectives in their paintings and geometric shapes.
-ART NOUVEAU. During this period ( end of 19th beg of 20th C) the Art Nouveau movement had taken all the modernist ideas and applied them to all forms of art and design giving a modern look to everything from architecture to everyday items in the home. The modern concept that all forms of art are equally important.
-ABSTRACT. Wassily Kandinsky is said to have produced the 1st abstract work in about 1911. The scientific study of colour gave artists the ability to experiment with its use and how it influences the observer. Abstract artists were at the forefront of experimenting with the spiritual and emotional effects of colour in their work.
-DADAISM. At the end of the 1st WW a group of artists who had been so disgusted by what had happened during the war rejected the logic that had led to the conflict and created the anarchic group called Dada. It only lasted from 1916 to 1921.
-ART DECO. During this post war period Art Deco added its modern touch to the world in the same way that AN had. With designs moving from the previously modern curvaceous designs of AN to the new geometric forms of AD. This jazz age brought with it a new social attitude which filtered through to painters, architects and designers alike creating a totally modern world.
-SURREALISM. Some of the Dadaist artists went on to study the power of the mind as a source of inspiration with their work exploring the subconscious mind.
-BAUHAUS. Also at the end of the war, 1919, the Bauhaus school was formed which had a huge and lasting effect on all forms of art and design. It combined art, architecture, design, industry and technology to create objects with beauty and function.
-ABSTRACT EXPRESSIONISM. After the 2nd WW New York became the artistic hub and the prevalent artistic style during the 40s and 50s was Abstract Expressionism. They made their art with the energetic application of paint to express them- selves freely and creatively. (Really?)
-MINIMALISM. Artists such as Donald Judd wanted to simplify art by removing any trace of the creative process or themselves. As the painting was anonymous the viewers’ experience would be more intense?
-POP ART. In the 50s and 60s there was a reaction to Abstract Expressionism with the emergence of Pop Art. While AE was all about personal expression with no boundaries, Pop artists became more structured. They wanted to challenge the established art world dominated by AE and used the new mass culture as their inspiration. They created a world where artists could express themselves in any way they liked.
THOUGHTS ON MODERNISM
While the work of modernist paintings are interesting, with some being aesthetically pleasing and others not, the detail of why the artist applied the paint in a particular way, or thought he’d make something look flat, is less interesting to me than the real world of the designer. To me the importance of a painting is whether I like looking at it, does it interest me or emotionally move me on any level and does it go with the sofa. Is a painting just a decorative feature or something more? The fact that one painters brush strokes are different to another’s is interesting in the historical sense. However, the imaginative designs and use of new materials, that took us from a world that had changed very little over many centuries to the computer age we live in now, over a period of only decades, is far more interesting. Without the imagination of the designers and their vision of the future possibilities of materials such as bakelite, concrete electricity and steel, these would have remained novelties in a lab. Designers pushed the whole of society into a new, modern world, created by them. From Sezanne to Jackson Pollark, artists had a huge voice throughout the modernist period, pushing artistic and social boundaries. While their social commentary is useful and will continue to move on with events and be a useful tool to help to change social opinion, are there any new ways to ask the question, what is the meaning of art? Marcel Duchamp made the point so brilliantly with his readymades. I think we got the point. While there are many earnest artists making genuine points, I do feel that there is a fine line between some modern art and the Kings new clothes.
I wonder how many rich fools have been conned out of their money by a good storyteller, or is that an art in itself. If a person wants a painting of a blue square and they find one they love and can’t live without, then the painting is worth however much the person wants to pay for it. Depending on the persons wealth they it doesn’t matter whether that is £10 or £ 1,000,000, regardless of whether or not I see its’ value. That is art. However if somebody buys a painting simply because they are told it will go up in value, regardless of whether they like it or not, then the painting has lost all of its artistic value and becomes just currency. There must be so many nouveau rich, particularly during the industrial and social revolution of the 19th and 20th century, who were conned. People, who have no opinion of their own but want to appear cultured, are prime targets. I saw a program on Damien Hurst that exposed the hype behind some art. The gallery owners had to bid up his work at auction because if its real value was realised then their investments would crash.
What I have found interesting is the hand in hand development of science, inventions, art and design, from the smallest detail on a teacup to the technical advances in domestic and industrial machines. Design has an impact on every-day life and ordinary people. I want my 3 choices to reflect my interest in design and the modern view, that design and the applied arts, are just as important as fine art. This is evident throughout the modernist period, for example, the pop artists who were fed up with abstract expressionism, wanted to break the distinction between the establishment (which AE had become) and popular art and design.
-9a Art Nouveau is the style of art and design that swept across Europe and the rest of the western world at the end of the Victorian era. It had its roots in the middle of 19th century but flourished at the turn of the century until the start of the world war one. The path for Art Nouveau had been paved by the early pioneers of modernism like the impressionist painters who had started to break with the traditional ideas of the previous generation. Its signature whiplash curves and free style completely broke with the stiff formality of the enlightenment period.
One of the most famous exponents of this was Rene Lalique, whose exquisite creations encapsulated all that was new, and his designs and technical innovations continued from his AN beginnings through to the origins of Art Deco and beyond.
Art history is clearly not an exact science. Styles and fashions overlap. One group of artists will continue working as they have always done throughout their lives, whereas others, at the same time will embrace new ideas and run with them, to create innovative, new and exciting works of art. Today, for instance there will be some artists painting realistic portraits worthy of the old masters or water colours in a style that hasn’t changed for years and others breaking boundaries by exhibiting dead bodies.
The period of time from around 1850 to about 1960, which is named the modernist period, seems to display this vagueness. Artists expressed this new age in so many diverse ways as it meandered through time, through wars, economic highs and lows, social and technical changes, each ism offered something different.
-Established in 1870s in Paris. Their work was very different to that of the preceding style of art. The Romantic style of painting was academically precise with objective representation. Their composition was formal and staged, whereas the impressionists painted from life. They literally captured the impression of a moment, so their technique was quick and not precise. They painted from real life, recording light and colour in a new naturalistic way, using bold free brush strokes. Rather than painting an accurate depiction of a subject. They wanted to express the emotional experience and feeling. Because their paintings were so different, it took a while for them to be accepted. Public opinion began to change by the end of the late 1880s and eventually became hugely influential, with their influence lasting up to the present day.
-In 1874 they had their 1st exhibition and their last in 1886.
-Artists include Claude Monet, Paul Cezanne, Edgar Degas, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Alfred Sisley and Edouard Manet.
- The Difference between Impressionism and Post Impressionism.
Impressionism, the paintings were done with quick movements in nature often showing the way light changes throughout a day.
‘ The work or the Post-Impressionists reveals a freely expressive use of colour and form to describe emotion and movement. They left out certain features of impressionism, such as the study of the effects of light and visual customs of naturalism.’
Art Nouveau notes.
-AN. 1st international style prolific 1890 to1905 throughout Europe & USA.
-Broke with previous neo-classical style & enlightenment themes. This new modern style based on stylised organic motifs.
12-It also helped to instigate the equalling of applied arts & fine art.
-Its style covered everything from architecture, jewellery, pottery, cutlery to glassware.
-Individual artists moved between disciplines.
12-AN was an attitude. It was a modern way of thinking and using the most modern production techniques & materials. While AN pushed the boundaries of visual design creating a totally different look to the preceding period, there were some designers, particularly those influenced by the arts and crafts movement, that rebelled against the machine and embraced the skill of the craftsman.
12-Everyday objects could also be beautiful works of art. People were reconsidering the everyday.
-From Lalique to Frank Lloyd Wright.
-First used to describe a group of Belgium artists in 1880s who were trying to create a new modern style. This group of 20 artists called les Vignt and were written about in the Belgium journal L’Art Moderne.
12-Many artists throughout US & Europe were being influenced by this new holistic attitude to art, advocated by the likes of Brit artist John Ruskin & the Gothic architect Eugine-Emmanuel Voillet-le-Duc.
12- Art accessible for all.
12- Modern commercialism, growth of industry & mass production essential to the development of AN.
3- A.N was an inevitable reaction to established art of the 19th c.
3- French impressionists had already broken down many barriers to allow art to progress beyond the grand themes, breaking with tradition and depicting the everyday and using different techniques. Now it was the turn for the next generation to take it forward.
2-1860s trade with Japan established. Europe now trading with Japan and therefore open to Japanese art with its’ flat perspective, vibrant colours, organic forms & strong design.
-Other contemporary movements were also reacting against established art like the Pre-Raphaelites & Symbolists.
12- AN ‘embraced new techniques, materials & machines to produce their work & used these new techniques & machinery to good effect eg. Ironwork to decorate buildings & machining of glass to achieve sculptural effects previously impossible’.
12- Defining features whiplash curves, natural motifs, swirling organic forms, sinuous swirling lines. Right angles and straight lines were still used by some, as seen in Scotland & Austria & was the base on which art deco was built.
-The end of the 1st decade of the 20th century saw the popularity of AN begin to decline. It was a victim of its own success due to over kill. It became cheapened with work being churned out and being applied to shoddy items.
-No longer new & cutting edge, by ww1 taste, fashion & society were moving on.
3- Although the movement was relatively short lived it was vital in moving art & design on from the rigidity of the past. AN was a huge influence.
-Its influence is still seen today & it had a resurgence in the 60s when another generation were challenging conventional art.
9a-Apart from being an exceptionally accomplished designer, artist and craftsman RL encapsulated the modern movement and remained at the forefront of design & innovation from the early days of Art Nouveau through the Art Deco period to his death in 1945.
-He utilised new materials within his jewellery that had not been used before. He rejected the old ideas of design & embraced the new free flowing naturalistic motifs.
RL April 6 1860 to May 9th 1945 Paris
9- Jewellery apprentice to Louis Aucoc in Paris at 16
9- He was multi-disciplined & apart from jewellery he studied sculpture, fabric & jewellery design & by 1900 he was creating object d’art from materials such as bronze ivory & glass.
9- Having worked on traditional jewellery he took over his own workshop in 1885 where he began to develop his own designs.
9-His aim was to create aesthetically beautiful jewellery, regardless of its intrinsic value. This is a typically modernist attitude. Along with many other artists he was influenced by Japanese art & nature.
9-By 1887 ‘ his designs were being recognised as great works of art, and revolutionary in design and concept, many people were shocked, finding some of his designs disturbing and too realistic.’
9-Emile Galle called him ‘the inventor of modern jewellery.’
9- Some of his great innovations were in the field of creative glass ware.
9-He made use of modern manufacturing techniques & mass production. By making his products in this way & using relatively inexpensive materials like glass he could sometimes bring beautiful objects to ordinary people at affordable prices.
9-His factory closed during ww2 but was re-opened by his son after his death. It is still run by his grand- daughter although Renes’ original glass formula has been lost
He introduced new materials as he recognised their visual beauty rather than just their intrinsic value eg. Horn, glass and semi -precious stones, rather than only precious stones.
His designs were sculptural, rather than just squeezing as many precious stones into a piece as possible.
His fascination with glass in his early days of jewellery making resulted in him experimenting with it and by 1910 he had established his 1st glass factory.
The shift from mainly jewellery to glass making could be due to his friendship with per fumier Francis Coty. Up until this point women would buy their perfume in plain bottles and decant it into a decorative bottle at home. Coty asked Lalique firstly to design the lables for his bottles, then the bottles themselves. This was so successful that he started making bottles for many other companies and the need to open his own glass factory. He now started to produce a full range of glassware from jewellery to light fittings.
He worked with a demi glass that he had developed which had a lower lead content and has a bluer appearance. After his death the factory used whiter lead crystal.
He produced decorative items for cruise liners, like the Ormandie, trains like the Orient Express and cars. He made the transition from artist craftsman to mass producing industrial designer but maintained a high quality.
In about 1898 he began to exploit his newly discovered methods of pressing and casting glass into moulds and developed his own demi glass.
He was known for his beautiful designs, technical development and creativity.
Notes on Art Deco Icons. BBC four.
-Deco, height of modernity & luxury not only for the wealthy. The style filtered down to every part of society.
-Simplest thing made modern & fashionable & luxurious by applied detail & decoration.
-Ships, trains, department stores, hotels.
-Reflective surfaces, perfectly engineered, gilded, lacquered artefacts.-Egyptian influence. King tut tomb 1922. Important influence on Deco.
-Travel opening minds by experiencing the exotic.
-Escapist movement to get away from WW1 horrors. It was a collective mood, crazy years from literature to art. It applied to everything.
-Every surface decorated. Flat no relief.
-Deco- French modernism- Paris exhibition 1925.
-Drama, glamour, erotic, primitive, savage, mythology.
-Magazines have new print processes, faster distribution with modern transport, means everyone could keep up with fashion quickly. Deco reaches around the world very quickly. It was futuristic and cosmopolitan.
-BEVIS HILLIER interviewed. 20s & 30s Jazz age or moderne. 1966 he coined the phrase Art Deco.
-Primitive exotic savage, he called it domesticated cubism with the likes of Picosso influenced by African art (although now not considered primitive).
-Collective reaction to WW1. People needed a rest bite from the privations. They wanted fizz & bubble. The 20s and 30s were a golden age.
-“The last of the total styles” Although the contemporary fashion in the 50s was popular, it did not influence all design like Deco did. Deco design covered everything from handbags to salt pots to lamp posts.
-Designers wanted it to be available to all, it was not elitist art. This made it immensely important, as it began to break down the gap between high and low art. A potter was considered as important as a fine artist. It was style for everyone.
-Deco transformed the ordinary to luxury with a veneer of glamour.
-It considered the use of machines and mass production in the design process, to bring it to the masses.
-Grew out of AN, with some of the same artists evolving from one to the other. After ww1 people were ready for change & each generation wants to be different to the last. This generation wanted to reconcile art with industry & science.
-By the 20’s, designers began to embrace the new technology, new materials, the possibilities of mass production and the spirit of the new post war jazz age.
-2 of the main designers at the forefront of this new age were Walter Gropius and Le Corbusier.
-Le Corbusier-In his 1923 book Vers Une Architecture ( which means towards a new architecture), he used new industrial structures as inspiration, for instance cars, trains cruise liners.
-1919-1933. It was a school of art, design and architecture. It had social, political and aesthetic aims, to combine industrial production with the skills of craftsmen.
-Direct honest use of materials in design, without added decorative features, with component parts and structure revealed.Its’ aims were defined by the famous quote ‘form ever follows function’. (Louis Sullivan. March 1896, article called ‘The Tall Office Building Artistically Considered’ Lippincotts Magazine #57). Sullivan was an American architect, responsible for first steel skyscraper in Chicago late 19th century.
‘Ornament is crime.’ (Adolf Loos 21st January 1910 in his lecture in Vienna.) is another defining quote by the Austrian architect.
Both of the above quotes are representative of the ideals of modernism and in particular Bauhaus. Eg. the shape of a building would no longer be picked from a pattern book but its use would determine its appearance.
- Use of industrial materials like concrete, steel, glass and plastic, in fact any material could be used whether new or traditional.
-To combine all the arts, with all of them having equal importance. It joined fine and applied arts.
-Taught the importance of the skills of the traditional crafts and to build on these foundations.
MARIANNE BRANDT (KANDEM BEDSIDE TABLE LAMP)
-She was born in Chemnitz oct.1 1893 –June 18 1983
9b-Only after looking at the kandem lamp and seeing that it was co-designed by M.B did it occur to me, that proportionally, how few female artists and designers there were in the past. This is not to say that she was a brilliant designer despite being a woman, but simply an observation of the time. Although women now had the vote and were far freer than before in all walks of life, they still experienced many traditional prejudices. In fact some of M.B’s photomontages comment on the position of women during the interwar period. She was also the only woman to take part in the Bauhaus metal work-shop. Previously women took part in more traditional subjects at the college like weaving.
-She studied under the modernist designer Lazlo Moholy – Nagy and ultimately became the director of the metal workshop at Bauhaus. She epitomised the ideals of modernism at the Bauhaus, ‘the functionality of design and the properties of materials together with the skill of the craftsman.’
She was responsible for joining industry with the designers of the Bauhaus and had great success with the mass production of her own designs. Unlike today, this type of collaboration was a new concept.
She was an accomplished photographer and created some interesting photomontages. She designed objects for the home chiefly out of metal, including her famous tea and coffee sets and lighting.
10b One year ago I visited the Bauhaus Museum and after getting over the general disappointment of the museum, I was very impressed with the furniture. My first impression was how current it looked, still stylish and fashionable by todays’ standards and putting it into the context of the period of time, in which it was created, made it even more remarkable. However after looking at many images of Bauhaus designs and of all the hugely important and magnificent designs that emerged from it, one image that caught my eye, was the little Kandem lamp. It looked so familiar, like an item that you could buy on the high street now, for a modern home but it was designed nearly 100 years ago. The extremely successful Kandem Lamp was designed in 1928 and was a joint venture between M.B and her Bauhaus colleague Hin Bredendieck.
The lamp was a moveable spotlight. Different version of the lamp were made n slightly different way and of different materials. One version was made with a sheet metal shade, steel tubing arm, cast iron base. Another was made with a bakelite shade, glass base and metal arm. It was produced by company called Korting and Mathiesen shortened to Kandem.
-Salvador Dali one of its main exponents, whose work had a huge influence on modern art of the 20th century, largely due to his self- publicising.
- Acquired many artistic skills. Designed advertisements, worked with fashion magazines, made films, costumes, stage sets. He was a writer, painter, jewellery & furniture designer.
-Discovered French Impressionists & Spanish Symbolism while at secondary school.
-He attended the Academia de San Fernando to study art but was disruptive and was eventually expelled after refusing to take an art theory exam.
His early work in the 1920s fell into the style of Neo-Classicism.
-1927 visited by Joan Miro, a surrealist painter who advised & influenced him over the next few years.
-1929 he made his 1st film in Paris. An Andalusian Dog. ‘ the film produced the effect that I had wanted, and it plunged like a dagger into the heart of Paris as I had foretold.’ From secret life.
-Strongly influenced by Sigmund Freud and his theory of free association.
-Breton wrote in his definition of Surrealism in 1924 ‘Surrealism, n.m.Pure psychic automation by which it is proposed to express, either verbally, in writing or in any other way, the real function of thought. Thought’s direction in the absence of all control exercised by reason and outside all aesthetic or moral preoccupations.’
-To look at the subject in an unconventional way and examine it through a dream state & the unconscious mind.
-Freud taught him to explore anxieties & taboos like masturbation, castration, impotence& sexual perversions using Freudian figures, motifs & metaphors.
-‘paranoia- critical method’.
-‘ a spontaneous method of irrational knowledge based upon the critical & objectification of delirious associations and interpretations’.
-Dali was a technical master. He re-visited old myths & legends & masterpieces & re-interpreted them through his ‘paranoia-critical method’.
-He ended up in USA in the 40s where he was acknowledged as a principle modern artist & his self- publicizing began to pay off.
-He was often criticised for his desire for fame & fortune even by former friend Andre Breton. His response in his Diary of a genius in 1964 was ‘ the jealousy of other painters has always been the barometer of my success’. (p14)
-Back in Spain in 1948, his work reflected his reaction to the atomic bomb in Japan,exploring the universal absolute, religion, mythology & nuclear physics.
-Used a dot matrix system in 1958 in his painting the Sistine Madonna. Industrial print method later used by Pop artists in the 60s.
-Worked with Alfred Hitchcock on the dream scene in Spellbound.
The Tube Map, Harry Beck.
By 1930s the London Underground system had become the epitome of everything modern. From the structure and design to the progressive way it was run. In fact LT was a patron of the arts and commissioned top contemporary artists like Man Ray, Graham Sutherlandand Paul Nash to create everything from the buildings to fabrics and posters. The result is the creation of many iconic fixtures and fittings and buildings. One of the most enduring was the underground map.
It is much loved by the public and in 2006 the map was voted 2nd in a BBC competition to find the publics’ favourite British design of the 20thcentury, behind Concord.
The map is an iconic design but the designer worked for LU as an electrical draughtsman. By 1933 the LU system had grown significantly. Previously the stations and lines had been placed on a traditional map to scale but with the addition of new stations and lines this system had become confused and hard to read. Beck used the principles of his circuit diagrams. He pared down the network to the essential basics. There is no need for detail on an underground map. He realised there was no reason for scale.
It was so revolutionary that it was rejected to start with. When the map was finally accepted, a run of only 1000 was produced and they were gone within an hour. 1,000,000 were in circulation in the 1st 6 months.
It made the system appear modern, fast and efficient.
Original map made in 1908, Beck started to draw his in 1931.
David Booth created a poster for LU called Tate Gallery by Tube. (Published by LU 1986) the poster was commissioned to inform passengers of how to get places of interest. It is the best- selling poster in LT museum.
Frank Pick who was publicity manager, then director, had the desire to make LU cutting edge. He employed the best designers to ensure that every detail was perfect. He had a passion for the arts.
Art Deco Style. Yvonne Brunhammer. Academy Editions 1983. 7/8 Holland Street, London W8
Art Deco Icons. BBC four. 30th January 2013. Presented by David Heathcote.
Five Part Essay on Modernism. Professor Christopher L.C.E. Witcombe. Dept. of Art History. Sweet Briar College. www.Arthistory.sbc.edu/artists/modernism.html#
20th Century Timeline by Mary Bellis. About.com Guide.
Art Nouveau. Pul teney Press. 1,Riverside Court, Saint Johns Road, Bath, BA2 6PD. Copyright 2009 Omnipress ltd.
Art Nouveau Style. Academy Editions. 7/8 Holland Street, London W8.1982
Essential Dali. Kirsten Bradbury 1999. Dempsey Parr. Parragon. Queen Street House, 4 Queen Street, Bath, BA1 1HE.
email@example.com Premavera Gallery 210, 11th Avenue at 25th street floor 8 New York NY 10001 author unnamed.
Cezanne by F. Nonotny Phaidon Press Limited, Littlegate House, St Ebbe’s Street, Oxford 1961
Essay by Denzar ?
Absolutely brilliant recreation of the painting “scream”
By changing the original character to Squidward, and having Patrick and Spongebob in the background, gives the painting a completely different meaning. As you can tell Squidward is screaming because of his dislike towards the others.
These artworks, along with many others for bands such as Chelsea Grin and A Day To Remember were designed by Dan Mumford. He is one of my favourite freelance graphic designers that I have come across, purely because of his album artworks. These two, like several other designs by Dan, have been done with Lino Printing. The reason I love this method so much, in this case anyway, is the sheer detail that he has managed to go into, for such a difficult and fiddly media.
Texas In July: I Am (album)
Unfortunately I couldn’t find the name of the artist/designer that created this artwork, but whoever they are gets my kudos.
A few things I enjoy, that I decided to draw.
I love doing pencil drawing as it allows me to play around so much with shading, to get as much detail in as possible.
Jungliest Movement poster I decided to draw. There are many versions of this design, but this version caught my eye with its straight mechanical shapes within the pattern.
My sisters finished Wedding Invitations…. Final product looks much better than I had hoped
Saw this image online and personally it reminded me of MC Escher. With its very surreal, side on look at reality.
Lecture 4 notes